Pola Spasial Kekeringan di Jawa Barat Pada Kondisi El Nino Berbasis Metode Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)

Ika Purnamasari, Tri Wahyu Saputra, Suci Ristiyana

Abstract


The hydrometeorological problem in the form of drought is a challenge facing Indonesia, especially West Java. The occurrence of drought in West Java, which has a monsoon climate, is closely related to the El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. One method for quantifying the level of drought is the Palmer method or better known as the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Rainfall data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) 2000-2012 was used in this study. PDSI calculations differ in normal conditions and El Niño conditions. The spatial pattern of PDSI calculations is then mapped based on seasonality. The spatial drought model based on the Palmer index shows that the peak of drought occurs in June-Juli-August (JJA) and September-October-November (SON). The drought is evenly distributed throughout West Java in the July to August period that centered in northern West Java from September to November. In the January to March period, the drought only concentrated in a small part of the western and southern parts of West Java. El Niño events during the dry season (June-November) increase the severity of drought in West Java.

Permasalahan hidrometeorologi berupa kekeringan menjadi tantangan yang dihadapi Indonesia, khususnya Jawa Barat. Terjadinya kekeringan di Jawa Barat yang beriklim muson erat kaitannya dengan fenomena El Niño South Oscillation (ENSO). Salah satu metode untuk mengukur tingkat kekeringan adalah dengan metode Palmer atau yang lebih dikenal dengan Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Data curah hujan dari Climate Research Unit (CRU) 2000-2012 digunakan dalam studi ini. Perhitungan PDSI berbeda pada kondisi normal dan kondisi El Niño. Pola spasial penghitungan PDSI kemudian dipetakan berdasarkan musim. Model spasial kekeringan berdasarkan indeks Palmer menunjukkan bahwa puncak kekeringan terjadi pada bulan Juni-Juli-Agustus (JJA) dan September-Oktober-November (SON). Kekeringan merata di seluruh Jawa Barat pada periode Juli hingga Agustus yang berpusat di Jawa Barat bagian utara dari September hingga November. Pada periode Januari hingga Maret, kekeringan hanya terkonsentrasi di sebagian kecil wilayah Jawa Barat bagian barat dan selatan. Peristiwa El Niño pada musim kemarau (Juni-November) meningkatkan parahnya kekeringan di Jawa Barat.


Keywords


CRU; El Niño; Jawa Barat; pola spasial kekeringan; PDSI

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.pengairan.2021.012.01.02

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